Structure and Function in Living Systems
5. The anatomy and physiology of plants and animals illustrate the complementary nature of
structure and function.
As a basis for understanding this concept:
a. Students know plants and animals have levels of organization for structure and function, including cells,
organs, organ systems, and the whole organism.
b. Students know organ systems function because of the contributions of individual organs, tissues, and cells.
The failure of any part can
affect the entire system.
c. Students know how bones and muscles work together to provide a structural framework for movement.
d. Students know how the reproductive organs of the human female and male
generate eggs and sperm and how
sexual activity may lead to fertilization and pregnancy.
e. Students know the function of the umbilicus and placenta during pregnancy.
g. Students know how to relate the
structures of the eye and ear to their functions.
- Physical Principles in Living Systems (Physical Science)
h. Students know how to compare joints in the body (wrist, shoulder, thigh) with
structures used in machines and
simple devices (hinge, ball-and-socket, and sliding joints).
i. Students know how levers confer mechanical advantage and how the application of this principle applies to
j. Students know that contractions of the heart generate blood pressure and that heart valves prevent back flow of
blood in the circulatory system.