Structure and Function in Living Systems
5. The anatomy and physiology of plants and animals illustrate the complementary nature of structure and
As a basis for understanding this concept:
a. Students know plants and animals have levels of organization for structure and function, including cells, tissues,
organs, organ systems, and the whole organism.
b. Students know organ systems function because of the contributions of individual organs, tissues, and cells.
The failure of any part can affect the entire
c. Students know how bones and muscles work together to provide a structural framework for movement.
d. Students know how the reproductive organs of the human female and male generate eggs and sperm and how
sexual activity may lead to fertilization and pregnancy.
e. Students know the function of the umbilicus and placenta during pregnancy.
g. Students know how to relate the structures of the eye and ear to their
- Physical Principles in Living Systems (Physical Science)
h. Students know how to compare joints in the body (wrist, shoulder, thigh) with structures used in
simple devices (hinge, ball-and-socket, and sliding joints).
i. Students know how levers confer mechanical advantage and how the application of this principle applies to the
j. Students know that contractions of the heart generate blood pressure and that heart valves prevent back flow of
blood in the circulatory system.